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         Polio:     more books (100)
  1. Polio: An American Story by David M. Oshinsky, 2006-09-01
  2. Small Steps: The Year I Got Polio by Peg Kehret, 1996-01-01
  3. The Polio Paradox: Understanding and Treating "Post-Polio Syndrome" and Chronic Fatigue by Richard L. Bruno, 2003-06-01
  4. Post-Polio Syndrome: A Guide for Polio Survivors and Their Families by Dr. Julie K. Silver M.D., Julie K. Silver, 2002-09-01
  5. The Polio Paradox: What You Need to Know by Richard L. Bruno, 2002-07
  6. Dirt and Disease: Polio Before FDR (Health and Medicine in American Society) by Naomi Rogers, 1992-05-01
  7. The Polio Years in Texas: Battling a Terrifying Unknown by Heather Green Wooten, 2009-10-25
  8. Jonas Salk and the Polio Vaccine (Inventions and Discovery) by Katherine Krohn, 2010-01
  9. Living with Polio: The Epidemic and Its Survivors by Daniel J. Wilson, 2007-08-15
  10. Twin Voices: A Memoir of Polio, the Forgotten Killer by Janice Nichols, 2008-09-30
  11. Warm Springs: Traces of a Childhood at FDR's Polio Haven by Susan Richards Shreve, 2008-06-10
  12. Chasing Polio in Pakistan: Why the World's Largest Public Health Initiative May Fail by Svea Closser, 2010-08-16
  13. In the Shadow of Polio: A Personal and Social History by Kathryn Black, 1997-05-16
  14. The Politics of Polio in Northern Nigeria by Elisha P. Renne, 2010-07-09

1. Poliomyelitis - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral Bulbospinal polio is a combination of bulbar and spinal paralysis. 4
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Classification and external resources ICD A B ICD ... MeSH Poliomyelitis , often called polio or infantile paralysis , is an acute viral infectious disease spread from person to person, primarily via the fecal-oral route The term derives from the Greek polio (πολίός), meaning "grey", myelon (µυελός), referring to the " spinal cord ", and -itis , which denotes inflammation Although around 90% of polio infections have no symptoms at all , affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the blood stream In fewer than 1% of cases the virus enters the central nervous system , preferentially infecting and destroying motor neurons , leading to muscle weakness and acute flaccid paralysis . Different types of paralysis may occur, depending on the nerves involved. Spinal polio is the most common form, characterized by asymmetric paralysis that most often involves the legs. Bulbar polio leads to weakness of muscles innervated by cranial nerves . Bulbospinal polio is a combination of bulbar and spinal paralysis. Poliomyelitis was first recognized as a distinct condition by Jakob Heine in 1840.

2. Polio
polio is a contagious, historically devastating disease that was virtually eliminated from the Western hemisphere in the second half of the 20th century
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Polio (also called poliomyelitis ) is a contagious, historically devastating disease that was virtually eliminated from the Western hemisphere in the second half of the 20th century. Although polio has plagued humans since ancient times, its most extensive outbreak occurred in the first half of the 1900s before the vaccination , created by Jonas Salk, became widely available in 1955.

3. The Disease And The Virus
poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus. It invades the nervous system, and can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours.
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... Background
  • What is Polio? Who is most at risk of polio?
  • Polio mainly affects children under five years of age. However, immune and or partially immune adults and children can still be infected with poliovirus and carry the virus for long enough to take the virus from one country to another, infecting close contacts and contaminating sanitation systems. This could facilitate transmission especially in countries where sanitation systems are sub-standard.
  • How is polio spread? How can polio be prevented?
  • There is no cure for polio, it can only be prevented through immunization. Polio vaccine, given multiple times, almost always protects a child for life. Full immunization will markedly reduce an individual's risk of developing paralytic polio. Full immunization will protect most people, however individuals can still contract the disease due to the failure of some individuals to respond to the vaccine.
  • Once established in the intestines, poliovirus can enter the blood stream and invade the central nervous system - spreading along nerve fibres. As it multiplies, the virus destroys nerve cells (motor neurons) which activate muscles. These nerve cells cannot be regenerated and the affected muscles no longer function. The muscles of the legs are affected more often than the arm muscles. The limb becomes floppy and lifeless - a condition known as acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). More extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles of the thorax and abdomen, can result in quadriplegia. In the most severe cases (bulbar polio), poliovirus attacks the motor neurons of the brain stem - reducing breathing capacity and causing difficulty in swallowing and speaking. Without respiratory support, bulbar polio can result in death.

    4. Polio -
    polio — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatment, prevention of this incurable, highly contagious viral disease.
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    Polio is a contagious viral illness. In its most severe form, polio causes paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death. During the first half of the 20th century, no illness inspired more dread and panic in the United States than did polio. Sometimes called infantile paralysis, polio struck in the U.S. every summer and fall with virulent epidemics. In 1952, when the polio epidemic was at its peak, 3,000 people died. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises that you take precautions to protect against polio if you're traveling to certain parts of the world where there is risk of polio. Adults previously vaccinated with a primary polio vaccine series and who are traveling to areas where polio is occurring should receive a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus (IPV). Immunity following a booster dose of IPV lasts a lifetime. NEXT: Signs and symptoms
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    Reprints and permissions By Mayo Clinic Staff
    Mar 5, 2007

    5. MedlinePlus: Polio And Post-Polio Syndrome
    The primary NIH organization for research on polio and Postpolio Syndrome is the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
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    6. Polio Facts
    Since polio immunization has become widespread in the United States, cases of polio are rare. However, polio remains a problem in many parts of the world.
    • The polio virus enters the body through the mouth, usually from hands contaminated with the stool of an infected person. Polio is preventable by immunization. Since polio immunization has become widespread in the United States, cases of polio are rare. However, polio remains a problem in many parts of the world.
    What is polio? Polio, short for poliomyelitis, is a disease that can damage the nervous system and cause paralysis. Since polio immunization has become widespread in the United States, cases of polio are rare. However, polio remains a problem in many parts of the world. What is the infectious agent that causes polio? Polio is caused by any of three polio viruses. Where is polio found? Before the availability of polio immunization, polio was common worldwide. However, with strong immunization programs and efforts to rid the world of polio, circulation of polio viruses is limited to a decreasing number of countries. The greatest risk is now in the Indian subcontinent and, to a lesser extent, in West and Central Africa. How do people get polio?

    7. Home Page For Post-Polio Health International
    Coordinator of International polio Network (IPN) and International Ventilator Users Network (IVUN), collects, creates, and disseminates information for
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    The Spring issue of Post-Polio Health (Vol. 24, No. 2) has been mailed to all PHI Members. The feature article, “Regulatory T Cells as a Biomarker of Post-Polio Syndrome” is the final report from PHI’s fourth Research Fund recipient. June Membership renewal notices have been mailed. Not a Member? Join PHI. Frequently Asked Questions Want to be a sponsor? Contact Check out International Ventilator Users Network The premier source of information
    about living independently with polio. This week at PHI ... Update on Global Eradication Total Cases Year-to-date 2008 Year-to-date 2007 Total 2007 Globally -in endemic countries* -in non-endemic countries *Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, Pakistan Source: Global Polio Eradication Initiative
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    Post-Polio Health International's mission is to enhance the lives and independence of polio survivors and home ventilator users through education, advocacy, research and networking. Become a Member or Renew Now!

    8. Polio
    Large postpolio resource. Topics ranging from medical and inspirational material to support issues to www resources and more.
    p olio e xperience n etwork
    About Post-Polio Syndrome
    For Students! Resources for your research paper
    Our Own Stories (some funny, some inspirational experiences of living with polio and PPS)
    Futures Unlimited, Inc. - "Offering hope for improvement - a treatment that works ."
    Resource Links: Polio Places, People and Forums on the Internet
    "P.E.N i n ... " newsletter
    (a wide variety of post-polio resources)
    Where Can I Find a Support Group?
    Meeting s for your support group
    Polio Vaccine ... Your comments Post-polio syndrome - the new challenge of an old disease.
    Polio Experience Network offers information, inspiration, ideas and resources to help you understand polio and post-polio syndrome, and to confidently manage life with it. Or to help a loved one cope with the effects of polio. We also offer resources for students doing research on the disease. We even have some links about disability in general. Browse - we should have something to help.
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    9. Chapter 4 - Poliomyelitis - Yellow Book | CDC Travelers' Health
    Vaccination is recommended for all travelers to polioendemic or epidemic areas polio vaccine is not typically required by law; however, there are polio
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      Chapter 4
      Prevention of Specific Infectious Diseases
      Poliomyelitis is an acute viral infection that involves the gastrointestinal tract and occasionally the central nervous system. It is acquired by fecal-oral or oral transmission (1).
      In the pre-vaccine era, infection with poliovirus was common worldwide, with epidemics occurring in the summer and fall in temperate areas (1). The incidence of poliomyelitis in the United States declined rapidly after the licensure of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in 1955 and live oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s. The last cases of indigenously acquired polio in the United States occurred in 1979 (2). The global polio eradication program subsequently led to elimination of polio in the Americas, where the last wild virus-associated polio case was detected in 1991 (3). In 1999, a change in vaccination policy in the United States from use of OPV to exclusive use of IPV resulted in the elimination of 8-10 vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases that had occurred annually since the introduction of OPV in the 1960s (4).

    10. WHO | Poliomyelitis
    polio (poliomyelitis) mainly affects children under five years of age. It marked the launch of the Global polio Eradication Initiative, spearheaded by
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    Fact sheet N°114
    Updated January 2008
    Key facts
    • Polio (poliomyelitis) mainly affects children under five years of age. One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis (usually in the legs). Among those paralysed, 5% to 10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilized. Polio cases have decreased by over 99% since 1988, from an estimated 350 000 cases then, to 1997 reported cases in 2006. The reduction is the result of the global effort to eradicate the disease. In 2008, only four countries in the world remain polio-endemic, down from more than 125 in 1988. The remaining countries are Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. Persistent pockets of polio transmission in northern India, northern Nigeria and the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan are the current focus of the polio eradication initiative. As long as a single child remains infected, children in all countries are at risk of contracting polio. Between 2003 and 2005, 25 previously polio-free countries were re-infected due to imports of the virus.

    11. NMAH | Polio
    This site explores the history of polio, the science and philanthropy behind the vaccines, the experiences of people who contracted polio and their
    In the United States, polio was the most notorious disease of the 20th century until AIDS appeared. On April 12, 1955, it was announced that Jonas Salk, using March of Dimes donations from millions of people, had developed a vaccine to prevent polio. Accessibility E-mail Signup Press Credits ... LARGE TEXT

    12. Polio
    Decades ago, polio outbreaks were a constant threat around the world. After the introduction of polio vaccines by Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin and a
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    A Rotarian immunizes a child against polio. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Photo by Jean-Marc Giboux. D ecades ago, polio outbreaks were a constant threat around the world. After the introduction of polio vaccines by Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin and a steadfast immunization effort, these outbreaks became part of history in most of the world.
    Yet many still live under the threat of polio, which is why Rotary and its global partners are committed to reaching every child with the vaccine and ending this disease worldwide.
    Major gains have been made in the global fight against polio:
    • In the 1980s, 1,000 children were infected by the disease every day in 125 countries. Today, polio cases have declined by 99 percent, with fewer than two thousand cases reported in 2006.

    13. Polio History Page
    polio, or more properly poliomyelitis, was one of the most feared and studied diseases of the first half of the 20th Century. It appeared unpredictably
    The Polio History Pages
    Polio, or more properly poliomyelitis, was one of the most feared and studied diseases of the first half of the 20th Century. It appeared unpredictably, striking its victims, mostly children, with a frightening randomness that resulted in near panic during the epidemics of the 1940s and 50s. Then, in 1955, a breakthrough occurred when, after massive field trials involving nearly two-million children, the Salk vaccine was shown to be effective in preventing the disease. Today, polio is all-but-forgotten as it has completely disappeared from developed countries, and worldwide eradication is predicted by 2005. However, polio's legacy remains. It is estimated that there are 600,000 polio survivors living in the United States, and the number worldwide must be in the tens of millions. Drawing from my book

    14. Poliomyelitis - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Of Poliomyelitis - NY Times Healt
    A free collection of articles about polio published in The New York Times.
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    15. VaccinePlace, Learn About Polio Symptoms And Immunization offers detailed information regarding polio, including symptoms, vaccinations, and shots.
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    ... Learn Search: Pertussis disease Influenza disease Meningococcal disease Rabies disease ... Patient information Welcome to! Overview
    Polio was one of the most dreaded childhood diseases of the 20th century in the United States. Polio epidemics crippled thousands of people, mostly young children, each year. Most of us don't remember how terrified parents were that polio would leave their children unable to walk or force them to spend the rest of their lives in an iron lung. Since the polio vaccines became available, the disease has more or less disappeared from the US and the Western Hemisphere. But it still occurs in some parts of the world... A single infection brought into the US by someone traveling from a country where polio still persists could possibly lead to polio epidemics again if we were not protected. That is why we continue to vaccinate.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: The Pink Book.

    16. Post-Polio Syndrome Fact Sheet: National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And
    Postpolio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus.
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    ... Request free mailed brochure Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is post-polio syndrome? What causes PPS? How is PPS diagnosed? How is PPS treated? ... Where can I get more information? What is post-polio syndrome? Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus. PPS is mainly characterized by new weakening in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection and in muscles that seemingly were unaffected. Symptoms include slowly progressive muscle weakness, unaccustomed fatigue (both generalized and muscular), and, at times, muscle atrophy. Pain from joint degeneration and increasing skeletal deformities such as scoliosis are common. Some patients experience only minor symptoms. While less common, others may develop visible muscle atrophy, or wasting.

    17. Polio - Definition, Description, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognos
    polio (pronounced POHlee-oh) is a serious disease caused by a virus called the poliovirus. The full medical name for the disease is poliomyelitis
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    Polio (pronounced POH-lee-oh) is a serious disease caused by a virus called the poliovirus. The full medical name for the disease is poliomyelitis (pronounced POH-lee-oh-mi-uh-LI-tis). In its severest form, polio causes paralysis of the muscles of the legs, arms, and respiratory (breathing) system.
    The poliovirus causes most of its infections in the summer and fall. At one time, summer epidemics of polio were common and greatly feared. The poliovirus primarily affects younger children. But it can also infect older children and adults. Poor hygiene and crowded living conditions encourage the spread of the poliovirus. Paralysis is the most serious symptom of polio. Only about 1 percent to 2 percent of those infected with the virus are paralyzed, however. Risk factors for paralysis include older age, pregnancy, problems with the immune system, a recent tonsillectomy, and a recent episode of very strenuous exercise.
    Polio: Words to Know
    Brain stem:
    A mass of nervous tissue that connects the main part of the brain to the spinal cord.

    18. Poliomyelitis - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Of Poliomyelitis - NY Times Healt
    Travel to an area that has experienced a polio outbreak; Lack of immunization against polio and subsequent exposure to a case of polio

    19. The Polio Vaccine - BabyCenter
    Find out why and when your baby should get a polio vaccine.
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    20. Polio Vaccine --
    Information about the polio vaccine from the American Academy of Family Physicians.
    Advanced Search Home Healthy Living Polio Vaccine What is polio? How can polio be prevented? What is the polio vaccine? When should my child be vaccinated? ... What if my child has a reaction to the vaccine? See Also: More Information Other Organizations Advertisement
    Polio Vaccine
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    What is polio?
    Poliomyelitis (polio, for short) is caused by a virus. The virus can be spread by drinking water with the polio virus in it. It can also be passed by close contact, such as kissing, with an infected person. Polio is a serious illness. It can cause paralysis (when you can't move your arms and legs) or even death. Before the first polio vaccine was developed in the 1950s, thousands of children got polio every year. Fortunately, the use of the polio vaccine has made the disease very rare in most parts of the world. Return to top
    How can polio be prevented?
    You can keep your children from getting polio by making sure they get the polio vaccine. Return to top
    What is the polio vaccine?

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